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LN – "Aquí tampoco podemos respirar". Cómo opera el racismo en la Argentina


El asesinato del ciudadano afroamericano George Floyd, ocurrido hace pocas semanas, generó un amplio rechazo entre los argentinos. Pero, aunque algunos puedan creer que se trata de un flagelo que nos toca de lejos, el racismo opera de muchas maneras en nuestra sociedad. Todo aquel colectivo que se aleje de la idea de sociedad blanca y europeizada, también aquí, en la Argentina, sufre diferentes formas de rechazo y discriminación.

Según las fuentes consultadas, el racismo a la argentina moldeó nuestra cultura e instituciones desde nuestros inicios como nación. Hoy continúa vigente, como si doscientos años de historia no hubieran sido suficientes para asumir que nunca fuimos la Europa de América latina. A veces nos muestra su cara más brutal, como en el reciente caso de la agresión a una familia qom, en Chaco. Pero en la mayoría de los casos es tan camaleónico, que pasa inadvertido en muchas de nuestras costumbres y hábitos sociales sin ser, por eso, menos nocivo.


El repudio que generó el crimen del afroamericano George Floyd incluyó una marcha en el Centro porteño
El repudio que generó el crimen del afroamericano George Floyd incluyó una marcha en el Centro porteño Fuente: LA NACION – Crédito: Daniel Jayo

El desprecio hacia los “negros” lo padecen los afrodescendientes, los pueblos originarios y los inmigrantes de ciertos países, como Bolivia, Paraguay y Perú, dejando en claro que el color de la piel es uno de los principales factores de discriminación en nuestro país. Por otra parte, la variable socioeconómica alumbra otro tipo de “negritud” igual de despreciada por buena parte del cuerpo social: los “negros villeros”, los “negros de alma” o, sencillamente los “negros de mierda”.

En un informe reciente, el Instituto Nacional contra la Discriminación, la Xenofobia y el Racismo (Inadi) consigna que el racismo en sus diferentes formas concentró el 17,2% de las denuncias entre 2008 y 2019. La mayor proporción tuvo que ver con discriminación contra migrantes (7,9%), el 4,1% hacia afrodescendientes, el 3,1% por condiciones socioeconómicas, el 1,8% por el color de piel y el 1,3% contra los pueblos originarios. En lo que va del año, las denuncias por este tema alcanzan el 16,2% del total.

Y ¿cómo se traduce este racismo? De muchas maneras. Se expresa mediante la violencia que, en ocasiones, es perpetrada por las fuerzas de seguridad, según denuncian algunos de los colectivos afectados. También a través de discriminación en contextos laborales, o en la imposibilidad de acceso a lugares públicos por lo que popularmente se conoce como “portación de cara”. Pero también en ciertas costumbres naturalizadas como burlas y frases despectivas.

Racismo y pobreza

“Me ha pasado de trabajar en un lavadero y que me dijeran ‘negro’ con desprecio. Porque uno sabe cuándo te lo dicen con mala intención. O que no me dejaran entrar a un baile por mi ropa o por mi corte de pelo.” Quien habla es Brian Landriel, un joven de 27 años, oriundo de Bernal Oeste, que ha sido víctima en numerosas ocasiones de la mirada prejuiciosa de los demás por usar ropa deportiva, gorra con visera, o provenir de un barrio humilde.


Muchos de los episodios de racismo socioeconómico que ha padecido Brian Landriel involucran a las fuerzas policiales
Muchos de los episodios de racismo socioeconómico que ha padecido Brian Landriel involucran a las fuerzas policiales Fuente: LA NACION – Crédito: Santiago Hafford

Las anécdotas se multiplican y muchas involucran a las fuerzas policiales. “Sé que si voy caminando por una calle y pasa un patrullero, lo más seguro es que pare a pedirme documentos aunque yo no esté haciendo nada malo. Me pasa en la estación de Lanús todo el tiempo. Los mismos policías me paran todas las veces. Y cuando te paran, te tratan mal, suponen que sos drogadicto y tal vez estás volviendo de un comedor en el que ayudás, o de jugar al futbol con tus amigos. Es re feo, te da una re bronca porque es injusto”, sostiene el joven.

Este tipo de racismo, que toma la realidad socioeconómica de las personas como objeto de burla y discriminación, también boicotea oportunidades. “Una vez llevé el curriculum cerca del Obelisco para un trabajo de bachero. Era una agencia de trabajo. Me preguntaron qué hacía y de dónde era. Le conté todo a la persona que me entrevistó: que quería progresar para poder irme del barrio. ‘Vos tenés que quedarte en tu barrio’, me respondió. Me sentí muy mal esa vez”, rememora.

La titular del Inadi, Victoria Donda, está convencida de que la discriminación racial y socioeconómica van de la mano. “Está muy instalado en una clase dirigente de la Argentina eso de los ‘negros de alma’, ‘negros de cabeza’. El caso del hombre que metió a su mucama en un baúl para llevarla a su casa del country es discriminación por condición socioeconómica y racial, además de otros delitos más. El caso de Villa Gesell (por el asesinato a Fernando Báez Sosa) es discriminación racial y de clase, además de ser un homicidio”, expresó recientemente, en una entrevista a LA NACION.

Identidades enmascaradas

La matriz racista argentina cala muy profundo en el ADN nacional. Tanto, que se habla de un racismo estructural, fácilmente detectable en ciertas políticas públicas -o en la falta de ellas- que vulneran derechos esenciales y que, en no pocas ocasiones, homogeiniza e invisibiliza la riqueza cultural de nuestra nación.

Verónica Azpiroz Cleñan es parte de la comunidad mapuche ubicada en Los Toldos desde tiempos ancestrales. Es politóloga y tiene documentado el proceso que los llevó de vivir en un territorio de más de 16.000 hectáreas a otro de media hectárea en la actualidad.


La politóloga Veronica Azpiroz Clenan recién pudo abrazar su identidad mapuche a los 26 años
La politóloga Veronica Azpiroz Clenan recién pudo abrazar su identidad mapuche a los 26 años

Todavía recuerda que, a sus ocho años, fue testigo de la última etapa de ese proceso, cuando el Estado otorgó títulos de posesión dentro de territorio mapuche a colonos que habían llegado con posterioridad. En esa ocasión la comunidad perdió también su cementerio. “La posesión veinteañal tuvo más peso que la ancestral. En aquella ocasión pusieron un monolito en el que el Estado agradece a la comunidad mapuche por haber dejado atrás sus actos de barbarie. El monolito permanece hasta el día de hoy”, se lamenta.

En ese contexto hostil, asumirse indígena no era cosa simple. “Desde chico te marcan que sos diferente, te hacen sentir salvaje. Entonces crecés con el mandato implícito de no decir que sos indígena”, recuerda.

No fue la única. El número de habitantes mapuches de Los Toldos es, al día de hoy, un enigma porque no todas las personas con raíces indígenas son capaces de asumirse como tales. De hecho, Verónica recién pudo abrazar su identidad a los 26 años, cuando estudiaba Ciencias Políticas en La Plata. Ahí comprendió que había vivido con una parte de su identidad no asumida, enmascarada.

“Viví una vida de niña de clase media en la que sabía que no podía hablar de ciertos temas. Por eso a mí me conmueve tanto escuchar los relatos de los hijos de desaparecidos. Yo siento que viví toda una vida que no era propia. Cuando te das cuenta, te querés matar. Tuve que empezar terapia porque empecé a preguntarme si todo en mi vida -mis elecciones, mis afectos, mis amigos- era verdadero”, asegura.

El politólogo y militante afroargentino Federico Pitta recuerda que sigue vigente el artículo 25 de la Constitución Nacional que establece que la nación argentina fomentará la inmigración europea. “Era el pensamiento hegemónico de la época en la que se sancionó. Pero que siga vigente hasta el día de hoy es muy ilustrativo. Si bien evolucionamos mucho como sociedad y estamos atentos a que en los espacios de decisión se cumpla el cupo de género, la cuestión racial todavía nos cuesta“, sostiene.


Imagen de video de la brutal agresión de la policía a integrantes de la comunidad qom en el Chaco
Imagen de video de la brutal agresión de la policía a integrantes de la comunidad qom en el Chaco Crédito: Imagen de video

“Tu papel es de negrita”

Todavía hay, en nuestra sociedad, quienes sostienen que en la Argentina el racismo no existe porque, según ellos, no hay afroargentinos. A Mailen Lamadrid, cuyo árbol genealógico llega hasta los tiempos de la esclavitud, le ha pasado en diferentes ocasiones que la consideraran extranjera por sus rasgos, su pelo o su color de piel. Alguna vez, incluso, la creyeron prostituta por esas mismas razones.


Por sus rasgos afro, en numerosas ocasiones a Mailen Lamadrid la han considerado extranjera
Por sus rasgos afro, en numerosas ocasiones a Mailen Lamadrid la han considerado extranjera Fuente: LA NACION – Crédito: Alejandro Guyot

Desde muy temprana edad Mailen comenzó a sentir las burlas y la discriminación por sus rasgos afro y por ser hija de un padre negro. Aún no se olvida de que, en el jardín de infantes, no la dejaron ser dama antigua para el acto del 25 de mayo. “Tu papel es de negrita, me dijo la maestra. Eso me marcó mucho”, rememora en diálogo con LA NACION. A aquel episodio le seguirían otras burlas y marginaciones que, de diferentes maneras, fueron vulnerando su derecho a vivir plenamente su identidad, especialmente durante su infancia y su adolescencia.

Hoy estudia Derecho y milita en una organización, Xangó, en contra del racismo y en pos de la inclusión y la justicia social. Sabe que la larga historia de invisibilización y marginación que vivió la comunidad afroargentina llega hasta nuestros días. Al igual que el resto de los colectivos discriminados, sus integrantes son rehenes de trabajos mal pagos y el número de estudiantes va decreciendo a medida que se avanza en nivel educativo. También los acecha la violencia institucional por portación de cara. Pero todas estas vulneraciones son difíciles de cuantificar por falta de cifras estatales.

“El último censo incluyó la variable étnico-racial por primera vez. Igual sabemos que hay muchos más afrodescendiente de los que reveló el censo (N. de la R.: cerca de 150.000 personas, aunque algunas estimaciones multiplican esa cifra por diez), que falta un trabajo fuerte del Estado para generar una mayor conciencia sobre las raíces afro”, agrega.

Barreras invisibles

El antropólogo Alejandro Frigerio sostiene que, sobre el racismo, operan cuestiones étnicas, sociales y culturales. “Hay una interseccionalidad. A veces no se racionaliza el racismo. Por eso podemos encontrar muchísimos actos racistas cometidos por personas que no se consideran racistas. Pero la realidad es que todos actuamos en base a ciertos estereotipos. El fenotipo es una variable racial importante en ciertas actividades: no ves muchos abogados de piel oscura, y si vas a un hospital, los imaginás como enfermeros pero no como médicos“, analiza Frigerio, también investigador del Conicet, quien sostiene que en los últimos años el racismo se volvió más explícito, producto de una mayor visibilidad de ciertos colectivos sociales.

Frigerio puntualiza que, a principios del siglo pasado, las personas negras eran objeto de burla: se las consideraba taimadas y poco confiables. “Hacia mediados de siglo, con la migración interna desde las provincias del norte, se dio la irrupción de ‘los cabecitas negras’, que vivían en las afueras, eran los villeros. En los últimos años, a partir de la crisis de 2001, irrumpen los ‘negros de mierda’, los ‘negros cabeza’, con los cartoneros y los piqueteros circulando por toda la ciudad cuando, hasta ese momento, había zonas para cierta población racializada: la periferia, los barrios pobres”, agrega.

Esas barreras espaciales, invisibles pero no por eso menos difíciles de franquear, persisten hasta el día de hoy. Flora Alvarado las conoce bien. Esta joven de 24 años, hija de inmigrantes bolivianos y oriunda de Villa Soldati, sintió en más de una oportunidad la mirada acusatoria que le hacía sentir que no debía estar allí durante sus tiempos de estudiante en el Colegio Nacional Buenos Aires. Ahora, que transita los circuitos del arte como estudiante en la Universidad Nacional de las Artes, el panorama no ha cambiado demasiado, asegura. “Los premios y las becas siguen siendo para las personas blancas“, agrega.


Flora Alvarado asegura que sintió un trato discriminatorio durante sus épocas de estudiante en el Colegio Nacional Buenos Aires
Flora Alvarado asegura que sintió un trato discriminatorio durante sus épocas de estudiante en el Colegio Nacional Buenos Aires Fuente: LA NACION – Crédito: Alejandro Guyot

Como integrante del colectivo Identidad Marrón, que busca visibilizar y denunciar el racismo estructural en la Argentina, Flora se propone generar conciencia sobre el lugar marginal en el que quedan las “bellezas marrones” según los cánones imperantes. “¿Cuándo viste que a una persona marrón le den un protagónico? Si aparecemos es como delincuentes o empleadas domésticas”, ejemplifica.

Lo cierto es que el poder de estas imágenes trasciende el universo estético y opera sobre el inconsciente colectivo. Cada vez que Flora ingresa a un local con personal de seguridad, es moneda corriente que le quieran revisar sus pertenencias. “A veces me pregunto por qué me las piden a mí y no a las personas que están ingresando en simultáneo -se indigna-. Pero ya no cuestiono y las entrego.”

A pesar de nuestros dos siglos de historia, el racismo todavía impone privilegios, excluye y discrimina. El espejismo de la sociedad blanca y europea nos impide ver la enorme riqueza cultural que ha forjado nuestra nación y la enriquece hasta nuestros días. Visibilizarla y respetarla es un desafío que nos interpela a todos.

Dónde denunciar

Si sufriste discriminación podés comunicarte con el Inadi a través de su página web o vía mail a: [email protected]

.


Publicado en el diario La Nación

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LN – Coronavirus in Argentina: a UCA report shows how the pandemic deepens social inequalities



The specialists consider that the main concern is the access to health of the most vulnerable sectors

The advance of the

pandemic

        

 In vulnerable neighborhoods, as specialists maintain, he confirmed how the

structural inequities

, living conditions and

access to health

These sectors directly affect the danger against Covid-19 and other diseases. In addition, as they warn, in a context in which the health system devoted all its resources to the emergency, other

Previous problems run the risk of deepening in these areas

, such as the lack of access to medicines or the delay in check-ups to control pre-existing pathologies. Lack of resources

psychological and social containment

These are other factors that increase the difficulty of going through this highly stressful moment imposed by quarantine.

These and other conclusions follow from the report “Capacity for human development and labor rights in the urban population at the end of the decade 2010-2019. The challenge of equity in Argentina in the face of the social and health pandemic”, which was published today by the

Argentina Social Debt Observatory (ODSA)

 from the Universidad Católica Argentina (UCA) and to whom

THE NATION

exclusively agreed. Work puts on the table the

marked gap

Regarding access to health and psychosocial resources that exist among the different social sectors of the country, a situation prior to the arrival of the

coronavirus

        

 and that affects the current picture.

According to Agustín Salvia, director of the ODSA, all these variables leave “marks regarding the risks of disease” that are cumulative and very different according to the social segments. “In the current context, Covid-19 is a deadly virus for the poor, as are pneumonia, dengue, influenza, intestinal infections, among many other causes of death that cross them every day,” he stressed. the sociologist.

Some of the surveyed data shows how the proportion of those who said they were sick in 2019 is almost three times higher in the “marginal worker” stratum (26.5%) than in the “professional environment” (9.7%). On the other hand, among those who

they did not agree to a regular medical consultation

During the past year, the values ​​doubled in the most vulnerable strata compared to those with the highest purchasing power, education and production.

For Salvia, inequity in health is expressed in segmented access to medical services, with

very uneven coverage and quality

, both at the primary and secondary levels. However, he considers that “it is much more important to bear in mind that the risk of the disease is prior to care” and that this group “does not face the same danger due to multiple factors, such as personal development in the context of poverty, malnutrition, chronic health problems, lack of vaccination, or unhealthy habitat. ”

Covid-19 is a deadly virus for the poor, as are pneumonia, dengue, influenza, intestinal infections, among many other causes of death that cross them every day.

Agustin Salvia

Along these lines, the ODSA report also reveals how throughout the decade and especially in the last period, social inequality in the use of

public health effectors

like first aid rooms and hospitals. Only 5% of the medium-high sectors and 3% of the average professional socio-labor strata use them. On the other hand, 56% of those who belong to the very low and 60% of those included in the marginal working group (60%) are served there.

In 2019, more than 60% of people did not perform physical exercise, a percentage that rises to 80% in the case of individuals whose head of household belongs to the marginal worker stratum

On the other hand, during the past year, 22% of people who said they had health problems were unable to access medical care, while 37%

couldn’t buy the drugs

necessary due to financial problems. Furthermore, one in four Argentines with anxious or depressive symptoms did not go to the doctor; while four out of ten could not access medications.

Multiple barriers

The preliminary results of a survey carried out over the past weekend by the ODSA in the city and the suburbs – it was made on 1775 cases that had been surveyed last year – show how during the pandemic, more than half of 60% of respondents who replied that they needed some type of treatment, operation, diagnosis or medical control, should

postpone or cancel it

. This is what Solange Rodríguez Espínola, an ODSA researcher and one of those responsible for the survey, explains.

Among those who were able to resolve the need for

telephone attention

, the figures (which are not yet the final ones) also reflect large differences: while 19.5% of people belonging to the professional medium sector channeled their consultation through this medium, the percentage fell to 6.9% in the marginal workers.

Regarding the presence of

inconvenience to access medications

for not having a prescription or not being able to attend the pharmacy, it climbed to 27.8% in the marginal working sector compared to 15.3% in the professional middle class.

The doctor Alejandra Sánchez Cabezas, director of the

Furrows civil association

 and the Health Observatory of the Group of Foundations and Companies (GDFE), stresses that the first effect of the pandemic is inequity in access to health in relation to income, social situation, the social group to which one belongs and to the place of residence.

In this sense, it considers that measures must be implemented that guarantee a

adequate and timely access

and effective communication that clearly explains to the population how to access the treatment of communicable and non-communicable, chronic and acute pathologies (emphasizing the increase in dengue cases), to sexual and reproductive health services (with a focus on the prevention of unintentional pregnancy that in our country reaches 70% of live births, in adolescents and in access to the legal termination of pregnancy) and the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

When the pandemic ends we are going to find many people discovered in terms of health, with unwanted events, from more unintended pregnancies to chronic untreated patients

Alejandra Sánchez Cabezas

“When the pandemic ends we are going to find many people discovered in terms of health, with unwanted events, from more unintended pregnancies to chronic untreated patients; but, in addition, with a totally worn out, underfunded, de-hierarchized and unhealthy health system resources, “says the doctor.

The psychological impact

In 2019, 22.8% of those interviewed by the ODSA reported feeling uneasiness, agitation, hopelessness, sadness, tiredness and nervousness. These symptoms deepen among people with the highest social, economic, residential, educational and work vulnerability. For example, those who refer to belonging to a professional labor stratum perceived a

anxious-depressive symptoms

in a lower proportion (14%) than those included in the marginal worker group (33%).

The

feel little or nothing happy

it also increases as the socio-occupational stratum and the socioeconomic level of the population decrease. Self-perception of being unhappy is four times more frequent than the interviewee’s higher socio-labor marginality. In fact, one in four of the respondents with the worst working and educational conditions feel unhappy, compared to only about 6% of the average professional stratum.

In other words, the report shows that twice as many individuals living in poverty reported feeling little or nothing happy when compared to those living in households with better economic incomes.

The specialists emphasize how psychological resources and social containment take on a leading role in the face of a situation of isolation due to a health emergency such as the current one, which deepens the relationship between economic informality, poverty and social exclusion. Living conditions, both in the lower middle sectors and in the informal sector of the social economy in the context of a pandemic, are deteriorating further.

For María Agustina Paternó Manavella, psychologist and researcher at ODSA and CONICET, the pandemic and social isolation, on the one hand, exacerbate the

anxious or depressive symptoms

, since people tend to feel nervousness, hopelessness, restlessness, agitation and insomnia, among others. On the other hand, the deficiencies in the residential spaces, the precariousness of the houses and the lack of basic services affect the way of sustaining or passing through the state of sanitary emergency.

“There is a percentage of the population that lives in overcrowded conditions, or with a deficit sanitary system due to not having a sewage network or drinking water, making it difficult to comply with sanitation measures and, probably, increasing their exposure to the virus”, maintains Paternó Manavella. And he adds: “On the other hand, the economic difficulties underlying not being able to sustain medical or pharmacological treatment substantially increase and potentiate the socio-sanitary crisis.”

The

lack of social network

It is another variable to take into account in a scenario where support links become essential: four out of ten adults from households in the marginal working class mentioned not having a social support or support network (family or friends), while it is only evident in one in ten of the average professional household stratum. Just one more example of how inequalities are deepening in times of pandemic.

ALSO

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Publicado en el diario La Nación

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LN – Coronavirus in Argentina. A campaign to donate hospital modules



The modules can be used to perform triage outside of hospitals and prevent the spread of coronavirus. The Central Hospital of San Isidro (photo) will receive the first one tomorrow Credit: Kindness

When he heard President Alberto Fernández announce the start of the

quarantine for the new coronavirus

, the real estate developer

Alexander Furst

he felt he had to do something. “I thought: I can’t be out of all this,” he recalls, in dialogue with

THE NATION

.

After talking with colleagues and well-known doctors, he concluded that the health system was going to need considerably more than supplies for health centers. This is how the initiative to build

hospital modules

so that institutions can use them to make

triage

(evaluating patients to prioritize care) outside their facilities and preventing infections as a result of healthy and sick people all sharing a guard together. “Starting to buy or produce chinstraps would have been nice, but this is ours, what we know how to do,” adds Furst, who also speaks on behalf of his colleagues.

Roberto Sambrizzi, Gabriel Zandperl, Santiago Egurza and Lucas Salvatore

.

To get the funds they need to make them, entrepreneurs hope to obtain financing through donations. With this objective, they established an alliance with the NGO COAS and thus the campaign was born

Let’s add space. Let’s add Health

. “Donations are channeled through COAS, which releases the funds per completed module,” explains Furst.


Employees work on the assembly of the module
Employees work on the assembly of the module Credit: Kindness

At the moment details are being finalized for tomorrow to open

the first of them at the Central Hospital of San Isidro

. At the moment, they plan to deliver another module in the Boulogne area, in a health center also dependent on the Hospital de San Isidro; two in Vicente López, two in La Matanza, one in Moreno and one in Morón. “Interested hospitals contact us. All we ask is that

promise to give you a profit

once the pandemic has ended. And in case they desist from their use, they donate them to some school institution, “adds the businessman.

The modules are made of steel and vinyl flooring. They measure 90 square meters and are delivered prepared to make the necessary divisions inside. They are produced in a plant in Moreno, which has the capacity to carry out two per day. The cost value is $ 4 million final each, delivered with two air conditioners and all electrical installation.

In 12-hour shifts, the operators work to assemble a module at the Central Hospital of San Isidro

00:38

How to donate:

Current Account in Pesos N °: 00005 21/0

Owner: COAS Social Action Cooperator

city ​​Bank

CBU: 0290000100000000052100

Also through Mercado Pago por:

www.rsecovidargentina.com

ALSO

.


Publicado en el diario La Nación

Categorías
Argentina news

LN – Coronavirus in Argentina: “I only ask, please, to bring them”, the anguish of the family members of the stranded



Alejandro Brun and his daughter María Pía who is stranded, along with her boyfriend, in Havana due to the suspension of flights due to the advance of the coronavirus

Their relatives are part of the long list of Argentines stranded in different countries. With much pain they are trying to digest the government resolution of

suspend repatriation flights

. With an enormous amount of anguish in tow, they accompany their loved ones from a distance and try to help them with procedures – hitherto unsuccessful – despite the limitations of movement imposed by compulsory and preventive social isolation.

Their stories are a reflection of those of many others: those of fathers, mothers, brothers, uncles and grandparents who today fight so that the global paralysis to stop the advance of the coronavirus does not prevent their loved ones from returning to their country.

Without water and without food

Alejandro Brun’s anguish seeps into his voice. He is desperate not only for not knowing when his daughter María Pía will return from Havana, but also because, meanwhile, both she and her boyfriend are in a hostile context, without drinking water and without food:

just a few cookies and a tea

they are their only daily food.

“At the hotel they were already told that on April 1

they must go,

since Cuba intends to evict all tourists. But where will it go? On the street? Today they already fear going out to buy food, on the one hand, because it is very difficult to get them, but also because they are afraid to return and find that they were kicked out of the hotel, “explains Alejandro.

The couple traveled last 13 to Cuba on Copa Airlines, which stops in Panama. The original return date was tomorrow, but more than a week ago, when they found out that Panama was going to close its airports and they could not stop there,

they decided to advance the return

. “They never made it. I also called the airline from here, I was talking for 45 minutes, but they didn’t give me any solution. They were left to their own devices,” laments his father.

Alejandro says that María Pía is 26 years old. He is a Human Resources student and works in a bank. “The boys are very upset by this whole situation. We too: their mother, their older brother. Especially since it seems that from the Government there is no solution,” he adds.

The social debate that the repatriation of tourists generates worsens the picture. “For us, all this is very difficult. There are Argentines who are having a very hard time abroad. And, ultimately, in the case of my daughter and her boyfriend, it is not that they went on a trip because they had money left over. They are working boys and they were presented with the opportunity to get to know a new place, to take a trip because they deserve it, because they tried hard. And to hear, even from officials, the things that are said about the people who traveled is very sad, because what we are going through is not good “, ends Alejandro.

Disabled and with her 84-year-old mother

Despair is also the feeling that floods Aldana Pereyra. His mother, grandmother and uncle left for vacation last 9 to Florianópolis, Brazil, and were unable to return. Pray that this whole situation does not exacerbate the health problems of Marina Posadas, her 61-year-old mother, who underwent surgery.

five times of the spine and with its respiratory capacity reduced by 40%

. And because everything is resolved before Manuela,

her 84-year-old hypertensive grandmother

, you run out of medication.


Marina Posadas (center), her brother and mother
Marina Posadas (center), her brother and mother

“My mom and my grandmother traveled with my uncle, who luckily is helping them in the matter of buying groceries and their basic needs. But where they are they rent per day and there is also the fear that they will run out of money and stay there, “explains Aldana.

All three had a return ticket for tomorrow, but, days ago, the airline -Latam- canceled them, according to the account, without any explanation. “We completed the Foreign Ministry form several times, but so far no one has communicated to offer them a solution,” she adds, discouraged.

Stranded in Cusco

María del Carmen Cuadro is the mother of Federico Conrroza, a 27-year-old young man who traveled to Peru with his girlfriend, his brother-in-law and his wife. The four had departed from the country last 13, but the feeling of vacation was short-lived: two days later, the news that Peru declared a state of siege surprised them on their way to an excursion.

Organizers left them stranded for hours

until they were able to return to the hostel where they were staying in Cuzco.

“With this state of siege, the routes are paralyzed and nobody wants to take them to Lima. They had a return ticket on the 23rd, but they were never able to get on the plane. There are about 450 Argentines in Cuzco,

some in very bad situation

. A few days ago my son and other people walked seven kilometers to collect some donations and distribute them among the people who are having a very bad time, “explains María del Carmen, unable to contain her tears.


Federico Conrroza (center) is stranded in Peru
Federico Conrroza (center) is stranded in Peru

“Everything closed and they didn’t have time to leave. My son tries to put this situation on his shoulder but the context scares them. They are in a strange country.

It happened to them to go shopping and that Peruvians are hostile, shout things at them

. Where are the human rights? These guys have a life here, a job they can lose, family, grandparents. My almost 80-year-old mother calls me every day to ask me when Fede returns. I only ask, please, to bring them, “María del Carmen begs.

A complex scenario

For the lawyer Fernanda Cavero, member of the Mental Health team of the Level 1 Health Center, dependent on the Vélez Sarsfield Hospital, the already distressing situation that relatives go through

is exacerbated in this context of pandemic

. “The pandemic generates in all human beings a state of emotional vulnerability. When a person is stranded, outside the home and the country, this implies an even greater threat, both for the person outside and for the family. Expectation is generated and high amounts of stress, discomfort and uncertainty due to not knowing if the person is going to be able to return, if they can protect themselves, if they are going to be repatriated or, even, if they can become infected, “he says.

“Every individual needs firm, stable soil to manage their anxiety.

If you are not in your country and at home, everything looks threatening

. Therefore, although quarantine is difficult due to the confinement situation, it is also a feeling of security and of being protected and isolated from the virus, “adds Cavero, also co-coordinator for the Vélez Sarsfield hospital of the Gerontological Health Program (Progesa) .

The specialist recommends that, as long as the impossibility of returning does not last, it is important that family members maintain a

fluid contact

with those who are outside. “Whenever possible, talk to that family member every day and check that he is contained. That wherever he is, he finds a place of belonging that allows him to be protected and taking the necessary hygiene measures in this context of pandemic.”

Recommendations for families:

  • As long as they cannot return to the country, the stranded people must register at the Embassy or Consulate and then protect themselves in the best possible way
  • Find therapeutic help if necessary. There are different health centers that offer online therapies
  • Try to watch the news once a day
  • Try to stay calm
  • Be as close as possible to friends and family
  • Seek help and support in social groups and family

FURTHER

.


Publicado en el diario La Nación

Categorías
Argentina news

LN – The “invisible” boys: what it is like to grow up without an ID in Argentina



Although the process has been facilitated in recent years, there are still many children and young people without ID; as Aaron, who only at 19 achieved a document certificate in process Credit: Patricio Pidal / AFV

Until the age of 19, Aaron did not have a National Identity Document (DNI).
It was not lost or stolen, never had. His parents did not register him at birth and the State did not take care of finding him.
Was invisible.

On his way through primary and secondary school, there were only worthless diplomas, which his teachers prepared for him to receive something on the day of the collation. “In elementary school, in Parque Chacabuco, I was asked for the DNI but my mother was lying. The secondary one, in Flores, I was doing it with the promise that I would take the document. At 17, a tutor was very concerned about the issue and He gave me the phone number of
Microjusticia Argentina, an organization that helped me to process it, “says Aaron Samaniego Tito, while proudly holding the document certificate in process.

There are not many figures on how many children and adolescents live without ID in Argentina. According to a UNICEF investigation, carried out in 2017, 2.4% of births registered in 2014 were neither registered nor documented. There are about 20,000 boys who would be starting first grade today. It is not known how many of them remain invisible to the State.

The specialists consulted by LA NACION, believe that while improving the legislation that facilitates access to the document,
The lack of a national registry that centralizes the information shows that there is a long way to go to prevent many from being left out.

In this sense, Alejandra Martínez, lawyer and president of Microjusticia, a foundation that facilitates access to justice for the most vulnerable population, states crudely: “There are almost 1,000,000 Argentines who are not registered. They do not travel, they cannot go to hospitals, they can’t have a SUBE. “

After 10 years of investigating the issue, Martínez says that “they survive every day and get used to living like this.
They work in black and ‘discard’ them when they don’t work anymore. Invisibility facilitates trafficking and exploitation. There are always abusers behind undocumented people“.

There are almost 1,000,000 Argentines who are not registered. They don’t travel, they can’t go to hospitals, they can’t have a SUBE

Alejandra Martínez, Argentine Microjustice

Birth registration constitutes the first act of legal recognition of the child’s existence and it is essential to make all his rights effective, from having an identity to being able to receive Universal Assignment by Child (AUH). From Unicef, they affirm that “the lack of birth registration stimulates an exclusionary society, exclusive of rights that induces vulnerability and exploitation of the child population.”

Aaron’s case confirms it. His first trip outside the city of Buenos Aires could only be made a month ago to go to visit his grandmother who lives in Jujuy, when he had the certificate of the procedure. I didn’t know what a bus or a plane was. “At school I missed all the excursions and could not do the internships offered by companies in recent years. When I went to Quilmes to visit my mother, the police stopped me at the La Noria Bridge and asked me for the document. I I always explained the same thing to them and they held me an hour or two until they let me go. To go to my alumni party I needed the lawyers who processed my document to give me a record, “the young man details.
Although he asked why he had no ID, his parents never explained the cause very well.

The story of Aaron, who is 19 years old and his ID in process

01:16

“There is a very strong prejudice that people do not register because of laziness, criminal records or illegal migration. It is a myth. People do not register, in most cases, because it belongs to the poorest and most vulnerable band of the country, with a greater presence of teenage mothers, of low education, lack of resources and precarious employment, “says Martínez, who from Microjusticia and with the UN, made a report of next publication, on the late registration of births in Argentina and its consequences.

For these reasons, the lawyer explains that
Do not blame these families and that social prejudice must also be demolished among those who work in the civil registries and courts.

Access issue

Argentina is governed by Law 26,413 on Civil Status and Capacity of Persons, of 2008. Although it is national in nature, each province dictates its own regulations and instructions. There is no established supervision or coordination mechanism for the exchange of data between provincial authorities and the National Registry of Persons (Renaper).
Nor is there a national base with information on registered births.

The deadlines for administrative registration were, initially, 40 calendar days, then it was extended to one year and in 2009, by presidential decree, it became 12 years. In 2019 it was extended to 18 years, because the operations and social programs showed that there were thousands of cases of undocumented children.

After the age of 18, it can only be obtained with a judicial resolution, a process of many years that involves hiring a lawyer, obtaining documentation, having witnesses, getting a medical check-up to verify gender and age and facing very high economic costs for this undocumented population that It belongs to the poorest and most vulnerable fringes in the country.

“If you don’t have an ID, you’re nobody,” says Marisol Alarcón, 23, and mother a 2-year-old girl. Live in La Matanza and benefit from the arrival of the El Estado program in your neighborhood. With the advice of the Open Institute for the Development and Study of Public Policies (Iadepp), she managed to obtain her ID when her daughter was a few months old. He had tried to do it many times, but the civil registration schedules, the documentation required, the costs of each trip and the obstacles that were put on him expired.

If you don’t have an ID, you are nobody

Marisol Alarcón, 23 years old

“They sent me from one office to the other, they asked me for several documents and I didn’t have them,” says Marisol.
He always worked in “black” in several textile workshops that took advantage of his situation and exploited it. “Now I’m going to rectify my daughter’s birth certificate so that my document number appears where NN says today,” he adds.

Why families do not process the ID of their sons and daughters? Some of the reasons, according to specialists, are: insufficient information, since many campaigns do not reach a part of the population; remoteness and lack of access to organisms, as well as shortage of resources of the latter; lack of articulation between maternity and intervening organisms; arbitrariness of civil registries, lack of regulation and uniform criteria.

Iadepp was born on Christmas Eve 2001, when Jorge Alvarez Nuñez shared a dinner in the La Cava neighborhood in San Isidro and detected “that there were people who were at the side of society” and felt the need to do something. “The only solution is for the State to facilitate access to the document. People cannot be held responsible. Civil registries must be more flexible, understand people, their times, their context, their history. They must have more social sensitivity.” holds.

Brenda González lives in Moreno, is 26 years old and has two children aged 10 and 3. None of them had a document until, in 2018, also with Iadepp, the process began. “I didn’t want them to go through what I went through. I never had a blank job or access to the AUH for my children. I attended elementary and secondary school without a document because the principal of the school was from the neighborhood,” he says.

When Brenda was going to have pregnancy checks, the document was claimed in the hospital, but she, like thousands of undocumented women, apologized, promised, kept silent and went on. That situation also kept them out of many programs that would help them have a better quality of life for themselves and their families.

Official sources of Renaper, say they will renew the decree that extends the registration period to 18 years and will continue with all programs that ensure inclusion and access to rights. Before the consultation on public policies to be implemented to facilitate access to identity, they assured that they cannot advance that information until after March 1, when President Alberto Fernández presents his government plan in the National Congress.

“The Ministry of the Interior began, years ago, a strong process with the technological revolution of the DNI and with mobile units that bring it closer to the people. This summer we made about 40,000 documents throughout the country and that will continue to expand because we want ensure the right to identity, “they said.

Some of the rights violated by people without ID are: they cannot access social security benefits such as Universal Child Allowance or disability assistance, among others; schools cannot grant them diplomas or certificates of completed courses, they must register them; in some hospitals, they do not receive treatments; They cannot travel in long-distance buses, use airplanes or leave the country.


Milagros next to Cloe, his daughter
Milagros next to Cloe, his daughter Source: LA NACION – Credit: Mauro Alfieri

Milagros Elizabeth Martínez did not know what it was to work in white,
go on a trip or go to the hospital without complaints. She left secondary school at age 15, a little tired of going through school without a document and suffering discrimination for everything she could not do because she was undocumented.

Like Aaron, his parents could not explain why not
they had registered. At age 19 he met the program Guarantee Your Identity, which was carried out by the Iadepp Foundation together with the government of the province of Buenos Aires, and facilitated its processing.

“When I had my daughter, I didn’t have my document yet. They wrote it down with the last name that appeared on the card of the social work that she used to help me. Now I am processing the rectification of her birth certificate so that my name appears correctly on her ID “, explains Milagros, who is 22 years old.

That is just one of the reasons why many babies are not enrolled. Their mothers assume that by not having their ID, they cannot do so, unaware that this is not an impediment. For the experts consulted, this is a product of the lack of information and advice that records, schools and hospitals should give to these parents.

Milagros today is thinking about studying hairdressing and finding a blank job. A new world opened for her and her daughter. They go to the hospital without having to make excuses and all the necessary checks can be made. She has the SUBE and has already scored her daughter in the kindergarten of her neighborhood, where room 3 will begin. She dreams of making a trip together in the future, without the obstacles she lived during her childhood

From the National Ombudsman’s Office, the area of ​​Identity and Citizenship in charge of Soledad Patané has been working for a long time so that the 2020 Census includes the question if people have ID. “We have been advising legislators for a long time to include the precepts of post-law decrees, which extend the registration period administratively up to 18 years, so that we do not have to depend on the Executive to renew it every year. Many people call the Ombudsman to ask us how to obtain their document and that shows that people want to do it, but the State does not provide it, “Patané explains, in line with Iadepp and Microjusticia.

Aaron is very close to receiving his document.
He dreams of working in white and being able to go to college. He really likes acting and theater and plans to enter the National University of the Arts (UNA) to study drama. His mother died, but the young man says he would be very happy to see him progress that way. She had tried to register him before 2008, when he was little, but at that time it was necessary to make a judgment that cost money and took a long time. His family could not face it. Today everything was faster and more accessible thanks to the new laws in force and the help of the organizations that work to help return violated rights.

Teachers on alert

The school and the hospital are the first alarms. Although health and education are fundamental rights, the lack of a document limits access to them. María Eugenia Mamani is a 7th grade teacher 10 years ago at the Army of the North School, in the city of Perico, Jujuy. She has to give the diplomas and gather the documentation for the certificate of studies that students will need to present to attend high school.

In 2017, María Eugenia urged one of her students to bring her document and she brought her her vaccination certificate. “I called the mother and she confessed to me that she had no document and that she could not write down her children. She did not know her rights, which happens with many more people even if they live far from the media,” says María Eugenia. That situation motivated her to seek help and she met with Microjusticia Argentina, the foundation that brought the Renaper to school.
There they verified that there were many more cases like that of that student and facilitated the regularization of the documentation of more than 276 boys of the town.

In the town of Merlo, province of Buenos Aires, another teacher tells a similar story. Alejandra Martines is retired as principal, after 39 years of work, but continues to work as a high school teacher. “The subject of the documents always worried me, the fact that they had no identity led me to talk to the moms to know where they were born and went to the hospitals to locate the birth certificates. I was looking for all the documentation of those children who were coming passing his years of schooling without being anyone for the law, “he explains.

Upon retirement he began working at the Ministry of Education of Merlo and presented a project on undocumented children to work from the municipal government.
“There were always undocumented children. I was wondering why there was no one to worry about that, why the State had no interference, why they didn’t make a file,” he says. He describes that many moms have their children in their homes, lose their papers, move a lot, live in places that are flooded or very wet and end up losing documentation. “Since I entered the secretariat, more than 200 already have the document done,” says Alejandra.

FURTHER

.


Publicado en el diario La Nación

Categorías
Argentina news

LN – He is 3 years old and has a rare disease: what is it like to live with SMA in Argentina?



Antonia was diagnosed with Spinal Muscular Atrophy at 18 months. Credit: Courtesy

From February to May 2018, the life of the Rodríguez Lozano family revolved around a single question: “What does Antonia have?” The 18-month-old girl began to have difficulties in her mobility and way of walking. They do not remember exactly how many doctors they consulted. “More than eight neurologists, sure,” says Maria Ballestrin, the mother. Until they found a specialist who told them to do a molecular genetic analysis.
The result was decisive: the little girl had Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) type III, a genetic disease that only 400 people have in the country and that has no cure.
They had the first answer, now a new question arose: “What is the AME and how is it treated?”.

Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is a genetic disease that attacks the nerve cells found in the spinal cord, weakening the muscles of those who suffer from it. It can affect the ability to walk, crawl, swallow and control the head and neck.
It can even make it difficult for patients to breathe. While medicine and physiotherapy help treat symptoms, there is no cure yet. And, depending on the type of SMA, it can be fatal: some patients do not reach one year of life. Antonia (3), the daughter of María and Álvaro, has type III. It is the least serious of the diagnoses and the one with the highest life expectancy, but that does not mean that every day presents multiple challenges for the family.

One in every 6,000 babies in the world is born with AME, and 50% die before reaching two years.

Maria says that nothing about the pregnancy or the first months of her daughter's life caught her attention. Antonia was crawling and behaving like any baby her age.
However, at 18 months, the Rodriguez Lozano noticed that he was walking “weird”: when he took a step forward, his hip accompanied the entire movement. “We went to a traumatologist who told us that it was something maturative and that we would return in six months,” he explains. Soon, the family went on vacation with some friends and their children, who were the same age as Antonia. There, when compared to the other boys, Maria allowed herself to doubt that first diagnosis: “Call it mother's instinct or whatever you want, but I knew there was something wrong. It was not a difficulty in the hip,” he recalls.

Then, when they returned from their vacations, they began the “tour of neurologists”:
They consulted several specialists until finally finding the one indicated, Dr. Soledad Monges, who recommended them to carry out a molecular genetic analysis to rule out that it was SMA. “As soon as he told us what it could be, I started to googling without stopping, but my husband didn't want to know anything until he was sure,” says María.

In Argentina, there are about 400 cases of SMA and it is estimated that only 120 people can access the only medicine available: Nurinersen Spinraza.

Call it mother's instinct or whatever you want, but I knew there was something wrong.

María Ballestrin, mother of Antonia.

Once they received the mail from the laboratory confirming the diagnosis of AME, the Rodríguez Lozano returned to the office of Monges, who prescribed the medication
Nurinersen Spinraza. It is the only one in the world that not only slows the weakening of the muscles but also, in patients who use it from an early age, as in the case of Antonia, can reverse the symptoms of the disease. While it is complicated for most families, Maria explains that for them it was a relatively quick process: “Like everyone else, we had to do the protection before the Justice to obtain it but our social work behaved very well with us and we they paid. ”
In addition, he assures that the medication was a before and after in the treatment of his daughter: “Before taking it, I could not get up alone from the floor and today yes. Also now you can stand longer and walk up to 60 meters,” specific.


Every four months, the drug Nurinersen Spinraza is given to Antonia by injection. In the photo, he is with his sister Matilde.
Every four months, the drug Nurinersen Spinraza is given to Antonia by injection. In the photo, he is with his sister Matilde. Credit: Courtesy

The drug, whose price is around $ 45,000, is applied every four months by an injection into the spinal cord. Despite being more “cancheros” with the surgical procedure, every time the time comes to go to the sanatorium for a new application, María and Álvaro feel that it is the first time and they cannot avoid the nerves. But Antonia, yes. “She knows everything: she knows that she has to draw blood and do urine tests before going. And once in the hospital, she likes to wait for her turn while playing in the waiting room and she is called dressed in the operating room's nightgown. No he suffers because he understands that he will be able to walk faster later, “describes Maria. In addition to the medication, Antonia performs other therapies that make your daily life easier: kinesiology, hydrotherapy and occupational therapy. In addition, inside his house he moves with a tricycle and when they go to a birthday or on vacation, Maria takes a stroller with her so she won't be carrying it all day:
“We want to achieve greater independence and improve your lifestyle.”

Nurinersen Spinraza, which costs about $ 45,000, is the only medication that slows muscle weakening and can reverse the symptoms of the disease.

Despite having gone through so many doctors since she was so young, Antonia continues to have the spark and joy of every three-year-old girl. He loves to play, be with friends and make up: “He liked to try on high heels and how we realized that he could not stand well, now we buy a shoe taco more low and resistant.”

Since Antonia was diagnosed, everything was learning for Rodríguez Lozano. They had to consult with legal specialists, various doctors and therapists. On the other hand, they also found a space for containment and information that was fundamental to them: the non-profit organization
AME Argentina families.
Thanks to the association, which brings together relatives of patients with SMA and that organizes mobilizations to claim for the treatment of patients with muscular atrophy, they were able to know the realities of other children: “We understand that within everything, we were blessed because he has the least serious type and we grab him in time. Now we try to live day by day, enjoy and not get anxious about what will come when Antonia grows up,” Maria reflects.


María Ballestrin, her eldest daughter Matilde, her husband Álvaro Rodríguez Lozano y Antonia.
María Ballestrin, her eldest daughter Matilde, her husband Álvaro Rodríguez Lozano y Antonia. Credit: Courtesy

We try to live day to day, enjoy and not be anxious about what will come when Antonia grows up.

María Bellestrin, mother of Antonia

What is the current situation of the drug in Argentina?

While Nusinersen Spinraza is already part of the Mandatory Medical Program (PMO), to achieve it
The families must make an amparo so that the Justice orders the delivery of the medicines to the social work or to the Ministry of Health.

Vanina Sánchez, director of Families AME Argentina, says that there are about 400 patients in the country and that only 120 of them receive treatment: “Now with the change of government, there are a lot of files that were waiting.
It is the duty of the social work or the State to cover the cost of the drug, but many are without treatment because it is impossible to finance it“he says.

After two years of waiting and complaints, the Nusinersen drug was registered in the country by the National Administration of Medicines, Food and Medical Technology (Anmat) in March last year.
From the entity they assure that it was approved with the regime of special medicines and that, from that moment, the patients should have the possibility of using it.

Families AME Argentina needs funds to carry out, for the first time in the country, a Spinal Muscular Atrophy Research project.

02:10

How to collaborate

The FAME association is promoting and solving for the first time in our country, a Spinal Muscular Atrophy Research project. The project will be part of an academic collaboration between the Conicet Laboratory – which will provide salaries, reagents, technical and administrative assistance – and the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in the United States.

For its part,
FAME must collect the sum of 9,000,000 pesos to cover the other research inputs.

To collaborate, enter
here
and if you have any questions, contact: [email protected]

FURTHER

(tagsToTranslate) He is 3 years old and has a rare disease: what is it like to live with SMA in Argentina? – THE NATION


Publicado en el diario La Nación

Categorías
Argentina ads

Campaña PEPSI Promo 5×1 – Wanda Nara y Mauro Icardi – Publicidad 2014


En Mayo 2014 Pepsi presentó la “Promo 5×1”, con comerciales de TV creados por la agencia BBDO Argentina, protagonizados por Wanda Nara y Mauro Icardi, y filmados en Milan, Italia. La pareja se mostró alegre y divertida: y hasta se animó a improvisar nuevos chistes.

El 1er spot causó una gran polémica. En el, Icardi junta las cinco tapas naranjas en diferentes momentos del día, robandoselas a otras personas, hasta que logra conseguir la bebida gratis y escapa junto a Nara en un auto. La placa final dice “GANÁ POR AFANO”. A los pocos dias fue levantado del aire por amenazas de acciones judiciales del ex marido de Nara, Maxi Lopez, y se lo reemplazó por uno similar donde la placa reza “ESTA PROMO DA QUE HABLAR”. Eso si, la canción no la tocaron y continua destacada la frase de fondo “ESTOY MIRANDO A TU NOVIA Y QUE”
En el 2do Nara asegura añorar los churros de dulce de leche de Argentina y cuando Icardi le cuenta que no los probó, ella le pregunta si nunca había ido a la costa de nuestro país. “No, iba a la La Florida (un balneario de su Rosario natal). No había mar, había río”, es la respuesta de él. “Malísimo, un olor a pescado. Aguante el mar, Pinamar, Cariló”, le dice Wanda y él se despacha diciéndole “¡Te hacés la cheta! ¡Sos más grasa!” con una voz apenas audible.
En el 3ero Wanda llama al mozo y Mauro la desafia a hablar en ruso.

Piezas del anunciante

Ficha tecnica
Anunciante: Pepsico de Argentina
Producto: Pepsi
Campaña: Promo 5×1
Agencia: BBDO ARGENTINA
Directores Generales Creativos Rodrigo Grau / Ramiro Rodríguez Cohen
Productora Primo
Director Santiago Elias
Postproducción Control Z
Corrección de Color Pentimento Color Grading
Sonido Notdeaf Sound Design
Tema: “Y Que”
Locucion Federico Elli

Duración: 00:02:08

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